Climatology

Climatology or climate science is the scientific study of climate and defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time and  its relation to plant and animal life, agriculture, aviation, medicine, botany, zoology, geology, and geography. Changes in Climate affect, for example, the plant and animal life of a given area. This field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and oceanography and biogeochemistry.  Climate scientists use a concept called radiative forcing to quantify the effect of these increased concentrations on climate. Radiative forcing is the change that is caused in the global energy balance of the earth relative to preindustrial times

Anology techniques:

  • El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO):  El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon.Their effect on climate in the subtropics and the tropics are extreme. it is a set of interacting parts of a single  global system of coupled ocean-atmosphere climate fluctuations that come about as a consequence of oceanic and atmospheric circulation.  The cycle occurs every 2 or 7 years, with El Nino lasting 9 months to 2 years within the longer term cycle, though not all areas are affected.
  • The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO):The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is an equatorial traveling pattern of anomalous rainfall that is planetary in scale. The nontypical rainfall is usually first evidence and it propagates over the very warm ocean waters of the central tropical Pacific. This pattern of tropical rainfall then generally becomes very nondescript as it moves over the cooler ocean waters of the eastern Pacific but reappears over the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans Each cycle lasts approximately 30–60 days..          
  • The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO): NAO are based on the difference of normalized sea level pressure between Ponta Delgada, Azores.

 

 

  • Paleoclimatology
  • Biogeochemistry
  • oceanography
  • Ecosystems and climate change
  • Western hemisphere warm pool
  • Climate and weather statistics
  • Geography
  • Used in weather forecasting
  • climate change and agriculture
  • Air quality

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